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Safety Campaign

A9 Tore Non-Motorised User Review on behalf of Transport Scotland


FINAL   REPORT Abridged for Website


TMS Project No:  1562

Date:  September 2013, Revised January 2014

Vanguard Centre, University of Warwick Science Park,

Sir William Lyons Road, Coventry CV4 7EZ

Tel: +44 (0)24 7669 0900

 Fax: +44 (0)24 7669 0274                                  

Email: info@tmsconsultancy.co.uk

 Web:  www.tmsconsultancy.co.uk














 APPENDIX A: Table of short and medium term recommendations  







1.1    This report  provides a review of the facilities for  Non-Motorised Road Users (NMUs)  and the conditions they experience whilst travelling in and around the village of Tore, Highland Region, Scotland. The Study Brief is to establish the NMU needs of the local community, and   to  propose    recommendations for  improving    conditions for NMUs where necessary. TMS Consultancy has been commissioned to undertake this study  on behalf of Transport Scotland.


1.2    The brief for the study supplied by BEAR  (on behalf of Transport Scotland)  requires the  review to encompass safety, comfort, convenience, continuity and connectivity of routes, and coherence with local networks. The users to be examined are:

 Pedestrians,  children, cyclists, people with disabilities.


1.3     TMS Consultancy was established in 1990 to provide specialist consultancy, research and    training   services    in  traffic  management      and   road   safety   Engineering.     TMS currently provides these services to a wide client base in both the public and private sectors     in  the  UK    and   internationally.  TMS      Consultancy     has    an  internationally recognised reputation in this field of work and runs the industry standard RoSPA Road Safety Engineering (AIP) and the Advanced Road Safety Engineering training courses.


1.4    This    study   has   been   carried   out  by  the   following  team    members,      who   are   both experienced in the field of traffic management and road safety. They have both carried out   numerous   non-motorised   user   audits  and  reviews,   road   safety   audits   and   cycle audits during their careers.


              Stephen Proctor – MSc, MCIHT, MCILT, FSoRSA

              Director, TMS Consultancy


              Harminder Aulak - BSc (Hons), IEng, FIHE, RegRSA (IHE)

              Principal Engineer, TMS Consultancy


1.5    A subjective assessment of safety risks, together with an assessment of the extent to which    comfort,    convenience,     continuity,  connectivity    and    coherence    of   routes   for NMUs has been compromised, has been undertaken as part of this study.


1.6    Options     for  improvement      to  mitigate   risk  and   improve    conditions    for NMUs      are  suggested as part of this report.


1.7    This report has been prepared by TMS Consultancy independently from the client. The views   expressed   are   those   of   the   author(s)   and   not   necessarily   those   of  Transport Scotland.





2.1     Tore   village   is   located   approximately   six   miles   north   of   the  city   of   Inverness.  It   is spread over a wide area and some major routes pass through or close to the built-up areas of the village. These routes are the A9 Perth to Thurso Trunk Road, the A835 Trunk Road and the A832 Principal Road. These roads join near the village, forming a large a-grade junction, which is known as Tore Roundabout.


2.2     A plan of the village is shown in Figure 1.


  Tore Primary School ,  Petrol Station and Service Area, Tore Community Hall

Residential Areas


2.3     As can be seen from  Figure 1, the different areas of the village are separated by the  major   routes, with  the   dominant  routes  being   the   A9  and   A835  Trunk   Roads. This results   in  non-motorised  road   users   having   to   cross   the   various   roads   to   reach   the different    facilities,  raising   concerns      regarding     road   safety,   comfort,    convenience, continuity, connectivity, coherence and whilst travelling in and around the village.


2.4     The speed limits within the study area are as follows:


          A9 NB approach to Tore Roundabout: default 70mph

          A9 north of Tore Roundabout: default 60mph

          A835 west of Tore Roundabout: default 60mph

          A832 southwest of Tore Roundabout: default 60mph

          A832 in Tore village: posted 40mph

          village roads to north around school and community hall: posted 20mph

          village road to south on east side (between A832 and A9 south side crossing):

          default 30mph  with street lighting, or 40mph from A832 - (no terminal signs)

         village road to south on west side (between A9 south side crossing and A832):

            default 30mph  with street lighting or 60mph from A832 – (no terminal signs).


2.5     Street lighting is provided to varying levels within the study area:

         the south side uncontrolled crossing is unlit

         the roundabout is lit with white light to include the north side crossing

         the A832 east side into Tore village is lit, the minor roads on the south side are lit with lower level lighting the 20mph area   on northwest side is unlit except at the Community Hall and school (individual lights).


2.6   The    minutes   of  the  Killearnan     Community       Council   meeting      raise   various   concerns regarding perceived dangers faced by NMUs. The major concerns relate to the dangers  of crossing the A9 Trunk Road, which creates severance between different parts of the village. There are also concerns regarding the lack of footways along the A832 (east) between   the   Tore   roundabout   and   the   filling   station/shop/cafe.   Some   concerns   have also    been    expressed      about    dangers     at  the   A835/    Tore    Primary     School    junction, particularly   when   turning   right   into   the   side   road   (it   should   be   noted   that   this   is   a vehicular issue rather than a NMU issue).


2.7   The   area   for   the  NMU  Review   is   the   boundaries   of   the   A9   Trunk   road   including   the  Glackmore junction to the south, the A835 Trunk Road and the A832 Local Authority Roads.


2.8   TMS  is  aware   of   an   issue   regarding   the   northbound   bus   stop   to   the   south   of   Tore  Roundabout.       Apparently the northbound buses do not stop at the bus stop just south of  the roundabout due to a concern that it is difficult to get into the outside lane to proceed  northbound on the A9. The TMS NMU review team did not notice this issue during their site observations and have therefore not commented further.





3.1  The   following   information  was       provided   by   BEAR   Scotland  (on   behalf   of   Transport Scotland), and was studied as part of the review:


 Non-Motorised Road User Review Brief provided by BEAR Scotland (on behalf  of Transport Scotland), July 2013; Injury accident data provided within the brief (1st January 2006 to 31st  December 2012);

Damage only accident data provided within the brief (1st January 2006 to 31st December 2012);

Record of issues raised by Killearnan Community Council at their meeting on  20th  June 2013.


Subsequent   information   regarding   speed   limit   reviews   on   the   A9   and   A835   was supplied by Transport Scotland, traffic flows were obtained from Transport Scotland and     Highland    Council,    and   development       proposals     were    provided    by   Highland  Council.


3.2  The site was visited by the Review Team on Wednesday 28th  and Thursday 29th  August 2013, during the following time periods:


              Wednesday 28th  August 13:00hrs to 19:00hrs, and 22:00hrs to 23:00hrs

              Thursday 29th  August: 08:00 to 10:00hrs.


     The weather conditions during the site visits were fine and dry. Traffic conditions varied  throughout   the   day,   though   no  extensive  vehicle   queueing or   heavy   congestion were  observed along the roads and at the Tore roundabout.


3.3  The purpose of the site visit was to gain an understanding of the area, carry out short pedestrian,   cycle   and   vehicle  speed   and   flow  surveys,   establish         NMU  desire   lines,  observe any conflicts between road users, and obtain a site inventory of existing  NMU  facilities   (which   included  some  site   measurements).  Though   no   formal   consultations were   carried   out   with   road   users,  any  comments   received   by  NMUs   were  noted and  taken into account as part of the study.


3.4   Information   provided   within   the   brief   and   the  data   gathered   from  the   site   visit  was studied   by   the   Review   Team.   This   formed   the   basis   of   assessing   the   suitability   of existing NMU facilities and suggestions for improvement where necessary.



4.1    During the site visit, a site inventory was carried out to plot all existing NMU facilities.

       These are shown on Figure 2:


                  Shared use footway/cycleway


                  Footway only


                  On-carriageway pedestrian and cycle route


                  On-carriageway cycle route




4.2      There     are  a  variety   of   facilities  for NMUs      around    the   village. At  the    A9   Tore Roundabout,   there   is   a   shared   use   footway/cycleway   around   the   perimeter   of   the  roundabout. There is also a shared use facility along the northern side of the A835 near    the   Tore   Primary    School/   Community       Hall  junction.    There   are   some    short sections   of   footway   near   Tore   Primary   School   and   along   the   southern   side   of   the A832 (east).


4.3      The other NMU facilities are on-carriageway pedestrian and cycle routes, consisting of   routes   using   service   roads   and   sections   of   the   A832. Some   of   these  constitute signed   cycle   routes,   with   the   major   one   being  the   long   distance   Sustrans   NCN1,which uses the facilities and roads to the north of the A835 and the A832 (east). A regional cycle route is also signed via the service roads linking the two sections of  the A832.



4.4      All   crossing   points   are   uncontrolled,   with   the  dominant   ones   being  the   staggered crossing on the A9 (south) between two  bus-stops and the northern A9 crossing at the Tore roundabout.


4.5      The primary school admits pupils between the ages of 5 and 12, after which many of  them travel (by bus) to Fortrose Academy to the east of Tore. The primary school  attracts pupils from a wider area than Tore village itself, and two minibuses operate a drop off/ pick up service at the school at 08.50 and  15.30hrs. One of these brings pupils the short distance from the east side of the village. The Review Team was told by the minibus driver that no children walk to the school, they either travel by minibus or taxi, or are taken and picked up by parents who use the drop off area at the car  park   by   the   Community   Hall.  The   fact   that   no   children   walk   to   school   and   are   all taken there  by  a   variety  of motorised transport methods  demonstrates very  clearly the way in which the A9 severs the local community. The Review Team did, however,  observe       secondary      school     pupils   crossing     the   A9    on    the   south    side   (dual carriageway)   staggered crossing   at  around   4pm. A   web  search   shows   this   area  is  likely to be dark (sunset) at 4pm from mid November to mid January.





5.1    The injury collision data shows that there have been no collisions involving NMUs over the data range (7 years, 2006 to 2012). In terms of the damage only data, there has only  been   one  NMU incident   over   the   same   data   range. This   occurred   in   2006   and involved     a  minor    collision  between     a   car   and   pedal    cycle   on   the  circulatory carriageway of the Tore roundabout.


5.2    The data indicates that the site has a good collision record for NMUs.


5.3    The   collision  data   does    not   account   for any    perceived    risks   by NMUs  and   any suppressed demand that may result from such perceptions of risk.


5.4     Figures available show the following annual average daily traffic (AADT) flows:

Transport Scotland traffic count web site:


 A9 Artafallie south of Tore 2-way AADT: 22,721

A9 north of Tore 2-way AADT: 10,320

A835 Tore to Leanig 2-way AADT: 9,935


 Highland Council

A832 west of Tore 2-way AADT: 3,100

A832 east of Tore 2-way AADT:4,200


  5.5    Various   traffic,   pedestrian   and   cycle   surveys   were   carried   out   during   the   site   visit.  These were manual counts to allow the  Review Team to gain a “snap shot” of the  areas surveyed during various times of the day. However, as they did not cover the whole   day  or   week,   they  should   not   be   treated  as formal  surveys.   The  results are shown in Table 1.


 Vehicle, Pedestrian and Cycle Volume and Speed Counts


        Location                          Time Period                   Survey Results

 A9, south of Tore Rbt,             08:15hrs to 08:30hrs         Car: 290

        southbound carriageway             (volume)                     HGV: 20

        at crossing point                                               Bus: 2

                                                                        Motorcycle: 2

                                                                        Pedestrians crossing: 1

                                                                        Pedal cyclists crossing: 0


                                           14:30hrs to 14:45hrs         Car: 147

                                           (volume)                     HGV: 14

                                                                        Bus: 2

                                                                        Motorcycle: 3

                                                                        Pedestrians crossing: 0

                                                                        Pedal cyclists crossing: 0


                                          17:30hrs to 17:45hrs        Car: 304

                                          (volume)                    HGV: 17

                                                                      Bus: 2

                                                                      Motorcycle: 16

                                                                      Pedestrians crossing: 1

                                                                      Pedal cyclists crossing: 0


                                          14:15hrs to 14:30hrs        56mph (85%ile)

                                          (speed)                     50mph (50%ile)


                                          17:30hrs to 17:45hrs        48mph (85%ile)

                                          (speed)                     41mph (50%ile)


        A9, south of Tore Rbt,            16:00hrs to 16:15hrs        Car: 251

        northbound carriageway at         (volume)                    HGV: 10

        crossing point                                                Bus: 1

                                                                      Motorcycle: 3

                                                                      Pedestrians crossing: 8

                                                                      Pedal cyclists crossing: 1


                                          17:00hrs to 17:15hrs        Car: 416

                                          (volume)                    HGV: 13

                                                                      Bus: 3

                                                                      Motorcycle: 5

                                                                      Pedestrians crossing: 0

                                                                      Pedal cyclists crossing: 0


                                          14:15hrs to 14:30hrs        42mph (85%ile)

                                          (speed)                     33mph (50%ile)


                                          17:00hrs to 17:15hrs        43mph (85%ile)

                                          (speed)                     37mph (50%ile)

        A9, north of Tore Rbt,           08:45hrs to 09:00hrs         Car: 206

        at crossing point                 (volume; 2-way flow)        HGV: 30

                                             Bus: 3

                                            Motorcycle: 2

                                           Pedestrians crossing: 0

                                            Pedal cyclists crossing: 0


                                          18:00hrs to 18:15hrs        Car: 313

                                          (volume; 2-way flow)        HGV: 18

                                                                      Bus: 4

                                                                      Motorcycle: 9

                                                                      Pedestrians crossing: 0

                                                                      Pedal cyclists crossing: 4


                                          18:00hrs to 18:15hrs        28mph (85%ile)

                                          (speed)                     23mph (50%ile)

        A835, at priority junction       09:15hrs to 09:30hrs         Car: 181

        for Tore Primary School           (volume)                    HGV: 8

        and Community Hall                                            Bus: 3

                                                                      Motorcycle: 0



                                                                           Pedestrians crossing: 1

                                                                           Pedal cyclists crossing: 1


                                             09:30hrs to 09:45hrs          56mph (85%ile)

                                             (westbound speed)             50mph (50%ile)


                                             09:30hrs to 09:45hrs          55mph (85%ile)

                                             (eastbound speed)             51mph (85%ile)

       Notes:      1) Weather conditions during the surveys were fine and dry

                  2) For the speed counts, only cars were measured in free flow conditions

                  3) HGVs were vehicles over 7.5 tonnes in weight

                  4) Motorcycles included all powered two wheelers, including mopeds


5.6    The results of the TMS “snap shot” surveys show that the A9 dual-carriageway (south of   the   Tore   roundabout)   is   a   busy   section   of   road,  particularly during   peak   periods  when   flows   are   almost   doubled   when   compared   to  off-peak   periods.   However,   the  variation   in   HGV   flows   was   less    between  peak   and   off-peak        periods.    Buses   and  motorcyclists typically only formed a small proportion of overall traffic flow.


5.7    In    the  vicinity   of  the  southern    crossing      point   across    the   A9   dual   carriageway,  southbound   vehicles   speeds   were   quite   high,   with   85th     percentile   speeds   of  56mph during off-peak periods and 48mph during peak periods. Northbound vehicle speeds  past   the   crossing   point   were   lower   with   85th percentile   speeds   of   43mph,   with  little  variation between peak and off-peak periods. The southbound speeds were higher as vehicles accelerated away from the  roundabout onto the dual carriageway,   whereas northbound drivers were starting to slow down for the roundabout.


5.8    The TMS surveys show that traffic flows were lower along the A9 single carriageway north of the Tore roundabout. This is confirmed by the formal Transport Scotland data,  where flows north of Tore are 45% of those compared to the dual carriageway section. TMS measured traffic speeds lower in the vicinity of the northern crossing point (85th  percentile speed of 28mph) as it was located closer to the roundabout, which acts as a speed control measure.


5.9    The TMS surveys show that the A835 trunk road was less busy than the A9 trunk road, and turning movements at the Tore Primary School junction were generally low. Thesesnap   shot   traffic   counts   were   again   corroborated   by   the   Transport   Scotland   data, which showed A835 flows at 96% of the A9 north of Tore, and 44% of the A9 south of Tore.  Speeds  observed   in   the   vicinity   of  the  Tore   Primary   School junction   were  in excess of 50mph (85th percentile speed of 56mph), as the junction is on a link section of road away from the Tore roundabout.


5.10   In   terms   of   pedestrian   and   cycle   movements,   flows   were   low   throughout   the   day,  according to the TMS data. A small number of pedestrians and cyclists crossed the A9 (dual and single carriageway sections), and numbers were also low at the A835/Tore Primary   School   junction.  The   only   noticeable         pedestrian   flow   across   the   A9   dual carriageway was when some school children alighted from a school bus and crossed  the   road   between   16:00   and   16:15hrs.   Pedal   cycle   numbers   tended   to   be   higher crossing the A9 north of the Tore roundabout rather than the south, probably because the northern crossing point is on the long distance Sustrans NCN 1 Route.


5.11    In   summary,   the   A9   is a   busy   trunk   road,  particularly the   dual   carriageway   section during peak periods. Southbound speeds along the dual carriageway section past the crossing point were observed in excess of 50mph, as vehicles accelerated away from the Tore roundabout. At the single carriageway section, speeds were controlled by the Tore roundabout itself. The A835 trunk road is less busy than the A9 trunk road and turning movements were low at the Tore Primary School junction, though speeds were observed in excess of 50mph as it is on a link section of road. Pedestrian and cycle  movements were generally low throughout, though it was noted that more pedestrians

crossed the A9 south of the Tore Roundabout, whereas cycle numbers were higher at the A9 north crossing point.



6.1     The extent of the non-motorised road user review is shown in Figure 3.



           A832 West of Tore Rbt


           A9 South of Tore Rbt,

             Crossing point to Glackmore junction


6.2     Each of the pedestrian and cycle routes shown on the Site Inventory Plan (Figure 1) were observed and walked at various times of the day, during both daylight and night- time   hours.  The   findings  from   these   observations  are   incorporated   in   the   following sections of the report.



6.3    Where appropriate, a comment has been added to describe whether, in the view of the  Review Team, the issue identified is primarily one  of Safety, Comfort, Convenience, Continuity, Connectivity, or Coherence. These factors are described                     in general terms below:


 Safety: a situation in which non-motorised users are involved in recorded injury

 collisions OR the threat of motor traffic puts non-motorised users at considerable risk

 when in conflict with motor traffic OR non-motorised users are at a risk to their

 personal security


 Comfort: a situation in which non-motorised users would not be comfortable due to

  (for example) the width/ nature of the travel surface or overhanging branches


Convenience: a situation in which non-motorised users may find the route

    inconvenient in relation to their origins and destinations


Continuity: a situation in which there is a break in the route, such that non-motorised

 users cannot continue their journey without proceeding into live traffic


Connectivity: a situation in which the route does not connect with appropriate

adjacent routes


 Coherence: a situation in which it is difficult for non-motorised road users to

 understand the route, it does not form part of a coherent strategic plan for the area



6.4    A832 East Of Tore Roundabout


6.4.1 The  major   built-up   area   of   the   village   is   the A832   through   Tore.   This   has   a 40mph  speed      limit  and   is  lit  by   a  system   of  street   lighting.  The   majority   of    the  area    is residential, though there is a large petrol station/shop/cafe on the northern side of the road at the eastern extents of the village. The road has no footways, except for a small  section on the southern side of the road and a section of shared use footway/cycleway from   the   Tore   roundabout.  The   A832   also   forms   part   of  the  Sustrans  Cycle  Route


NCN1 (Dingwall to Inverness) and a regional cycle route (Muir of Ord to Tore).


                                             Entry to Tore Village from roundabout


6.4.2      Pedestrian Issues    The  lack of footways along the A832 results in pedestrians having to walk in the carriageway, particularly as the verges are narrow and uneven to walk upon. This  could be intimidating for pedestrians, especially for the elderly, disabled or young  children. At certain times, the presence of heavy goods vehicles, narrow road width and     busy    nature    of  the   road   does    make      walking    along    this  road   potentially hazardous.  The   speed   limit   of   40mph   is   also   considered   high   for   a   road   where NMUs are expected to travel in the carriageway with no segregation from live traffic.


               Issues of Safety, Comfort, Convenience, Continuity, Connectivity


Lack of footways along A832    The most dominant trip attractor in the area would be the petrol station/shop/cafe, but there are no direct footways or crossing connections to this facility. There is also  no footway route to the shared use footway/cycleway at the Tore roundabout, which  limits connectivity for pedestrians travelling from the village to Tore Primary School  and the Community Hall. However, pedestrian flows were observed to be very low along the A832 (just two pedestrians were observed during the study period) and there have been no injury or damage only collisions involving NMUs. It is not known whether   the   low   pedestrian  movement   is typical   for   the   area  or  whether   there   is           suppressed demand due to the lack of facilities.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort, Convenience, Continuity, Connectivity


   No footway connection to petrol station/shop/cafe    In terms of site specifics, overgrown vegetation limits the width of the short section  of footway provided on the southern side of the road, which reduces comfort levels for pedestrians. Overgrown vegetation also restricts intervisibility where this footway meets the road to  Bogallan, which could be hazardous if pedestrians step out into  the path of vehicles.


               Issues of Safety, Comfort


 Overgrown vegetation restricts footway width and limits intervisibility



6.4.3      Pedal Cycle Issues    Cycle   routes   are   signed  on-carriageway   along   the   A832,   (although   there   is   no specific provision within the carriageway). The route provides continuity for cyclists  travelling    through     Tore,   though     some    of  the   signing    can   be   confusing     due   to missing, hidden or misaligned signs. For example, there is no sign for NCN1 at the right turn from the A832 to the road to Bogallan and Inverness. Other signs at this junction are hidden behind overgrown vegetation.


               Issues of Convenience, Connectivity

 Example of cycle route sign masking and inconsistency at A832/North Kessock junction    The A832 is considered reasonable to cycle along, though it could be intimidate for   less   confident  and   novice  cyclists,   such   as young   children,   particularly   where they     need    to   cross    the   carriageway      to   turn   at  junctions    or   to   access   to footway/cycleway at the Tore roundabout. Westbound cyclists seeking to use the north side crossing and follow the NCN1 have no nearside sign to assist them to  turn   right   onto   the   shared   use   facility,   and   so   could   end   up   on   the   roundabout circulatory carriageway, in conflict with live traffic.


               Issues of Safety, Connectivity, and Coherence


 Right turn to access Tore roundabout cycleway could be difficult for novice cyclists


Absence of nearside sign indicating NCN1 to right, on approach to roundabout


6.5    A9 South Of Tore Roundabout (Crossing Point And Service Roads)


6.5.1 The A9 (south) dual carriageway separates the residential area on the south-western  side of the trunk road from the major part of the village east of the Tore roundabout. There      are   service   roads    leading    up   to  the   A9   on   both    sides,   with   a  staggered  uncontrolled crossing across the A9 itself. The stagger is “wrong-way”, in that NMUs travel   through   the   central   reserve   to   the   crossing   location   with   their   backs   to   traffic, which could put them at greater risk of stepping into the path of live traffic. There are northbound   and   southbound   bus-stops   along   the   A9   in   the   vicinity   of   the   crossing point. The trunk road is derestricted with a 70mph speed limit.


       Issues of Safety, Comfort


6.5.2 The   length   of   the   stagger   at   the   crossing   is   17m.   Each   carriageway   has   two   traffic lanes and each carriageway is 8m wide. There is a 1m wide path through the central  reserve,   which   is   4.4m   wide.   The   bus   stop   on   the   east   side   is   45m   south   of   the  crossing point, and the bus stop on the west side is 58m north of the crossing point. At both east and west kerbside crossings, pedestrian guard rail guides pedestrians to the dropped kerbs, where tactile paving appropriate for an uncontrolled crossing has been installed.


                            A9 dual carriageway, near uncontrolled crossing point


6.5.3 Pedestrian Issues route for pedestrians from one side of the village to the other is continuous, with  the service roads being reasonable to walk along as they are effectively cul-de-sacs. However,   the  crossing   of   the   A9   dual   carriageway   presents   a   major   obstacle   for pedestrians.


Service roads are quiet cul-de-sacs    The severance created by the trunk road results in pedestrians having to cross the road   to   reach   the   different   parts   of   the   village   or   the   bus-stops.  The   crossing  movement   would   be   considered   to   be   very   hazardous,   due   to   the   high  vehicle speeds (especially southbound leaving the roundabout) and traffic volumes during  peak periods. As an example of this, for those pedestrians crossing the  8m wide southbound carriageway, it takes 5 seconds for a vehicle to leaving the circulatory  carriageway to arrive at the crossing. 85%ile speeds at this point were observed by  the Review Team to be between 48 and 56mph.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort    It can be difficult to judge vehicles speeds and gaps in traffic on high speed roads.

           The elderly, disabled or children pedestrians could face particular difficulties under  such circumstances (school children do cross here to catch school buses). If NMUs do get struck  by vehicles at the crossing point, the consequences are likely to be serious or fatal injuries.


       School children crossing dual carriageway     It was noted during the site visit that the presence of the crossing is not obvious to drivers.  In   the   northbound   direction,   drivers   are   likely   to   be   concentrating   on   the roundabout and may not appreciate the presence of pedestrians in the carriageway. The information presented to drivers in advance of the crossing  location includes direction signs, countdown makers, and other signs.                   


 In the southbound direction,  drivers would be accelerating away from the roundabout and may not anticipate the  need     to  slow   down     if  pedestrians     are   crossing    ahead.     Again      the  information presented in advance includes clearway for 117 miles signs. The signs warning of the presence of pedestrians are not specific to a particular type of crossing facility.


           Issues of Safety


 Position of crossing not obvious, despite warning signs     The crossing is beyond the extent of the street lighting at the Tore roundabout and so is in darkness at night. This would exacerbate the hazards as drivers may be unable to see pedestrians in the carriageway. Pedestrians could also find it more difficult   to   judge  the   speed   of   approaching   vehicles   at   night   and   there   could   be personal security issues in the absence of lighting.


            Issues of Safety, Comfort


A9 southbound approach to crossing from circulatory carriageway at night     In   terms   of   site   specifics, there   are  some   local   hazards  which   are   considered   to require attention. On the southbound carriageway, there are some road studs within the crossing area. These could be a trip hazard for pedestrians (especially at night).

Similarly,   the   anchorage   points   for   the   wire   rope   and   steel   safety   barrier   in   the central reservation could be a trip hazard for pedestrians at night. In addition, there is  inconsistency  with  the  “Look  Left/Look  Right”  signs  and  road   markings   at   the crossing   point,   with   some   of   the   signs   being   quite   small   and   inconspicuous.  The  crossing  on  the  northbound  carriageway  does  not  have  “look  left/  look  right”  markings, and the look left sign in the central reserve for NMUs crossing from east to west is very small.


            Issues of Safety, Comfort


  Roads studs within crossing point                       

Wire rope barrier trip hazard

 Steel barrier anchorage hazard                      

Small, inconspicuous “Look Left” sign     Pedestrian flows were generally observed to be low at the crossing point and the service   roads.   In   addition,   there  have   been  no   injury   or   damage   only  collisions involving NMUs. It is not known whether the low pedestrian movements are typical for the area and whether there is suppressed demand due to the lack of facilities.


6.5.4      Pedal Cycle Issues     Cyclists follow the same route as pedestrians along this section of the village, with the   regional   Muir   of   Ord   to   North   Kessock   cycle   route   signed   through   this   area  (which   eliminates   the   need   for   cyclists   to   negotiate   the   Tore   roundabout).   As   for pedestrians, the service roads are reasonable to cycle along as the surfaces are good and the roads are lit.     However, the crossing of the A9 dual carriageway presents a similar challenge for cyclists     as   it does    for   pedestrians.     Cyclists    are   likely   to  feel   vulnerable  and  intimidated whilst crossing the road, especially if they are inexperienced or novice cyclists.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort    There are some particular issues for cyclists which could make the route difficult to negotiate. The gaps through the fences linking to the service roads are narrow at 1- 1.3m,   with   the   signs   requiring   cyclists   to   dismount.   It   is   also   implied   that   cyclists should   walk   whilst   crossing   the   A9   dual   carriageway.   This   makes   the journey for cyclists    inconvenient  and  less    seamless.      In  addition, the   central   reservation is narrow, with a 1m path set within a 4.4m central reserve that also accommodates safety fences. These constraints  require cyclists to give-way to oncoming cyclists and pedestrians.


 Narrow linkage to service roads


  Central reservation narrow for cyclists


6.6        A9 South Of Tore Roundabout (Crossing Point To Glackmore Junction)


6.6.1      General NMU Issues    The A9 south of the crossing point is not designed for NMUs as it is rural in nature carrying   long   distance   traffic.   There   is   little   evidence   of  NMU  use,   though   some cyclists were observed using it in the northbound direction. These were observed to be   long    distance    leisure  cyclists   and   it   is   not  known   whether      they   decided   to purposely   use   this   route   instead   of   the   signed   alternative   Sustrans   NCN1   route, which avoids the A9 trunk road.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort


 Northbound cyclist using A9 (left carriageway and entered footway near Tore roundabout)    The     A9   dual   carriageway is  not  considered  to  be   a  suitable route   for NMUs,  especially as a signed alternative cycle route exists. A small number of pedestrians, originating in Glackmore, could possibly walk on the verge towards Tore, but this was not observed during site visits by the Review Team.


A9 dual carriageway unsuitable for NMU use


Scheme: A9 Tore Non Motorised User Review –Final


6.7    A9 North/A835/A832 Tore Roundabout


6.7.1 The   Tore   Roundabout   has   a   continuous   shared   use   footway/cycleway   around   the  majority of its perimeter, except for a small section on the eastern side. The crossing points   across  all   arms   are   uncontrolled. The   roundabout   is   lit   and   the speed   limit   is  derestricted      (60mph),      though    speeds      are   constrained     by    the   geometry of  the roundabout itself (the entry deflection does appear to control entry speeds).


Shared use footway/cycleway around Tore roundabout


6.7.2      Pedestrian Issues    The     shared    use    footway/cycleway does   provide   a  near  continuous route   for pedestrians around the roundabout. The surface is good and the paths are suitably illuminated at night.    The   most   difficult   arm   to   cross  is   the   A9   north   as   this  is   the   busiest   route. This uncontrolled crossing    has    a  splitter   between   3-4m  wide,   with   an   east    side carriageway width of 9m, and a west side width of 7m. There is some pedestrian guard rail on the west side to guide pedestrians to the dropped kerbs, which have tactile paving appropriate for an uncontrolled crossing. Traffic tends to arrive at the crossing  in platoons, which can result in a lengthy  wait for pedestrians whilst the traffic queue dissipates.  However, this crossing is perceived to be less hazardous than    the   A9  (south)    dual    carriageway      crossing    as   it  is  located   closer   to  the  roundabout itself where speeds are lower.  Nevertheless, if  NMUs do get struck by vehicles at the crossing point, the consequences could involve serious injuries, as some speeds were observed in excess of 30mph.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort, Convenience


Crossing of the A9 north can be difficult when traffic arrives in platoons    The A9 north crossing forms an important link for pedestrians travelling between the  built-area on the eastern side of the roundabout and the residential area, primary school and Community Hall facilities to the west of the roundabout. The difficulty of crossing here (particularly at peak times) reduces connectively between the eastern and western parts of the village, but as discussed earlier, it is considered that the problems  here  are   not   as   acute   as   at   the   A9   south   dual   carriageway   crossing.  Nevertheless, discussions with school transport drivers have indicated that primary school children are not encouraged to cross the A9 and instead are bussed to and from the school, which highlights the severance created by the A9 trunk road (see also Section 4.5).


           Issues of Connectivity    The other arms of the roundabout (A835 and A832) are easier to cross as traffic flows tend to be lower on these arms, though the A835 can be busy at peak times when platoons of traffic arrive at the same time.


A835 trunk road can be busy at times    There are some site specific issues which need attention to improve conditions for NMUs. At some crossing points, there is an accumulation of silt and gravel at the dropped kerbs, which could be a slip hazard. Some of the upstands at the dropped kerbs are high, which could be problematic for wheelchair users and other mobility impaired  pedestrians.   In   addition,   there   is   an   intervisibility   issue   at   the   A9   north crossing      as   vegetation      obscures      visibility  for NMUs      crossing the   road   and southbound vehicles approaching the roundabout.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort


 Silt/gravel slip hazard for NMUs at crossing points

Intervisibility restricted at A9 north crossing


6.7.3      Pedal Cycle Issues    The   shared   use   facility   provides   a   continuous   route   for   cyclists.   The   A9   north crossing also provides an important route for cyclists following the Sustrans NCN1 route.    Cyclists   face   similar   challenges   to   pedestrians   when   negotiating   the   roundabout but there are some areas which affect the comfort of cyclists using the route. The gap in the boundary fence which connects the roundabout path to Torwood Way is narrow. The left turn from the roundabout path to the gap is also awkward, requiring cyclists to slow down significantly or possibly dismount to accomplish the turn.


           Issues of Comfort, Convenience


Narrow gap for connection to Torwood Way     On   the   southern  side   of   the   roundabout   (between   the   A9   dual   carriageway   and A832   (west),   the   shared   use   path   around   the   perimeter   ends   suddenly,   with   no indication   of   the   route   that   cyclists   should   take   beyond   this   point.   Cyclists   would either     need    to   turn   back     or  continue      along    the   narrow      footway     past    the   A9 northbound   bus-stop.  (Alternatively   they   could   take   the   service   road   through   the small residential housing area to the south of Tore.)


            Issues of Connectivity, Convenience


Roundabout cycle route ends abruptly where it meets the A9 dual carriageway There is no comprehensive cycle route signposting in the area.


6.8        A9 North Of Tore Roundabout (Up To Killen Road Junction)


6.8.1      General NMU Issues    The A9 north is a single carriageway road and there are no NMU facilities along the  road from the Tore Roundabout to the Killen Road junction. A few cyclists on long  distance journeys (commuter and leisure trips) were observed using this section of  road. Discussions with some of these cyclists revealed that the route was used as  no convenient alternative route existed for cyclists, except for a lengthy detour via Dingwall  following       the   Sustrans     NCN1     route.   Cyclists    expressed  the  view   that  cycling   along   the   A9   was   unpleasant   and   hazardous  (due   to   traffic   volumes   and speed), but they used the route through necessity rather than choice.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort


     Cyclists travelling along A9 north    No   pedestrians   were   observed   walking   along   the   A9   north   as   there   are   no   trip  generators /attractors sites in the immediate vicinity. Therefore, it is not considered that this section of road is an important route for pedestrians


6.9    A835 West Of Tore Roundabout (Up To Primary School Junction)


6.9.1 The   A835   is   a   single   carriageway   trunk   road.      From   the   Tore   Roundabout   to   the primary school junction, there is no requirement for NMUs to travel in the carriageway  as an alternative parallel route exists along Torwood Way. From Tore Community Hall, a shared used footway/cycleway is provided alongside the A835, which forms part of  the long distance Sustrans NCN1 cycle route.


A835 trunk road, with shared use footway/cycleway on northern side


6.9.2      Pedestrian Issues    Torwood Way service road is a cul-de-sac and thus has very low traffic volumes. The road also has a 20mph speed limit. Therefore, even though there is no footway along the road, it is suitable for pedestrians to travel along in relative comfort and safety. However, the road is unlit, and not overlooked by properties, and so there

could be personal security issues for pedestrians using sections of the road at night

near to overhanging trees. (It is noted that this situation is common in many rural



           Issues of Safety (security)

Torwood Way provides an alternative route for NMUs, avoiding the A835     There are some footways in the vicinity of Tore Primary School and the Community  Hall,   but  the   kerb   upstands   at   some   pedestrian   crossing   points   are   high,   which could create difficulties for mobility impaired pedestrians, such as wheelchair users. Some overgrown vegetation also restricts footway width and limits intervisibility at crossing   points. The footways   form   part   of   the school  walking  route from   the   car park    at  the   Community        Hall   to  the   primary    school     entrance,     but   some     of  the markings and surface treatments are worn.


            Issues of Comfort


High upstands at dropped kerbs near Tore Primary School

Overgrown vegetation restricts intervisibility at crossing point



6.9.3      Pedal Cycle Issues    Sustrans Route NCN1 travels along the A835, via Torwood Way service road and a shared use footway/cycleway along the northern side of the trunk road. The route is well signed and provides a continuous facility for cyclists parallel to the A835.


Sustrans route NCN1 from Torwood Way and along A835    The   only   area   where   cyclists   (and   pedestrians)   could   face   difficulty   is   where   the shared use path crosses the A835/Primary School junction. The junction has a very wide     bellmouth     and   NMUs       could    be   vulnerable      crossing    the   wide    junction. Intervisibility at the crossing point is also restricted by vegetation.  In addition, the wearing course of the carriageway is worn and could be uncomfortable for  NMUs.


           Issues of Safety, Comfort


  NMUs have to cross wide junction bellmouth


Intervisibility restricted at crossing point


6.10    A832 West Of Tore Roundabout


6.10.1     General NMU Issues There are no specific  NMU facilities  along the A832 from the Tore roundabout to the   service   road   junction.   An  alternative  route   exists   for   pedestrians   and   cyclists using   the   quiet   service   road   to   the   south   of   the   A832.   Beyond   the   service   road junction,   the   A832   is   signed   as   regional   cycle   route   to   Muir   of   Ord,   with   cyclists travelling on-carriageway.


  Cyclists signed via service road to avoid A832 towards Tore roundabout There was no evidence of NMUs using the section of the A832 under review, as the alternative    route     via   the   service    road    is   more    convenient       and    attractive    for pedestrians and cyclists. The service road is a cul-de-sac with low traffic flows and speeds. The road is also lit to a reasonable level and comfortable for use by NMUs at night.


 Service road provides quiet alternative route avoiding A832 west



7.1     An  assessment  has  been  made  of  the  safety  and  “usability”  of  the  two  main  NMU routes in Tore. The northern (NCN1) route between the A832 and the A835 via Tore Roundabout and Torwood Way has been assessed, and the southern route across the A9   dual   carriageway   has   also   been   assessed.  The   observations   and   comments   in  Section 6 of this report form the basis for this assessment.


7.2     The assessment has been made in two ways. First, a risk assessment of safety issues  has been carried out using the CIHT risk assessment matrix published in their Road  Safety Audit Guidelines of 2008, and shown in Figure 3.


                                              Figure 3


7.3     Second,   an   assessment   of   “usability”   based   on   the   extent           to   which   comfort, convenience,   continuity,  connectivity  and   coherence  of   routes   for  NMUs   has   been compromised   has   been   undertaken.   In   each   case   the   route   is   considered   as   being good, average, or poor for each of the aspects assessed.


7.4     Northern route Assessment:


Risk Safety Assessment  pedestrians: –  severity: serious; frequency: less   than

10 yrs; overall risk: MEDIUM  (risk   of serious  injury   if   a pedestrian  is   struck  by   a   large   vehicle  at   30mph   or over. Frequency is considered to be less than 10 years as current exposure to risk  is very low – very few pedestrians were observed crossing the road and no injuries took place in the last 7 years)


Risk   Safety    Assessment        cyclists: –   severity:   serious;    frequency:    5-10     yrs; overall risk: MEDIUM (risk of serious injury if a  cyclist is struck by a large vehicle at 30mph or over. Frequency   is     considered   to   be 5 -  10   years as  some   cyclists were   observed crossing the road, but no injuries took place in the last 7 years)


              NMU Comfort: POOR


              NMU Convenience: AVERAGE


              NMU Continuity and Connectivity: POOR


              NMU Coherence: AVERAGE


              Overall NMU “usability”: POOR


7.5    Southern route Assessment:


              Risk Safety Assessment cyclists: – severity: fatal; frequency: 5-10 yrs;

  overall risk: HIGH  (risk of fatal injury if a cyclist is struck by a vehicle at  50mph or over. Frequency  is   considered   to   be  5  -  10   years as   current   exposure   to   risk is   low  –  a   few cyclists   were   observed   using   the   road   but   no   injuries   took   place   in   the   last   7 years)


Risk   Safety  Assessment  pedestrians:  –   severity:  fatal;   frequency:  5-10     yrs; overall risk: HIGH (risk   of  fatal  injury   if   a  pedestrian is   struck  by   a   vehicle   at   50mph   or   over.

Frequency is considered to be 5 - 10 years as current exposure to risk                 is low – some pedestrians, including children,  were observed crossing the road but no injuries took place in the last 7 years)


              NMU Comfort: POOR


              NMU Convenience: AVERAGE


              NMU Continuity and Connectivity: AVERAGE


              NMU Coherence: AVERAGE


              Overall NMU “usability”: POOR - AVERAGE


7.6    The southern route has a higher safety risk assessment due to the speed of traffic and the   fact   that   school   children   appear   to   cross   the   road   on   a   regular   basis.   From   a “usability” point of view the northern route is considered slightly worse, mainly due to convenience and connectivity issues along NCN1 and the lack of footways along the A832 east through Tore village.


7.7    Comparatively few NMUs were observed by the Review Team crossing the A9 at either location. This may well be due to the threat posed by traffic, and the comparatively poor level of service provided for NMUs.


7.8    The overall level of service could be improved, both in terms of safety and usability, and recommendations for short, medium and long term improvement are addressed in the next two sections of this report.




       The   outline   recommendations   are   set       out  below   and   categorised   in   terms   of  the northern NMU route, the southern NMU route, and other aspects of NMU use in Tore.  The   issues   raised   in   section   6   are   repeated   in   summary   form   in   Sections   8.1  -  8.3 below.


8.1    Northern NMU route inc A832 east, A9 crossing, and NCN1


8.1.1    A832 east of Tore Roundabout


       Issue 1: Lack of footways for pedestrians and route for cyclists


       Short term:


undertake  pedestrian    and     cycle  usage survey     on   A832     between     Tore Roundabout and Service Station, together with full speed survey


       Medium Term:


depending   on   results   of   survey  undertake   design   of    improved footways  and   a  specific cycle facility through the link, together with an appropriate NMU crossing of the A832 on a suitable desire line


        consideration should be given to a 30mph speed limit on this section


       Issue 2: Overgrown vegetation overhangs short footway sections on south side

       of road


       Short term:


cut back vegetation and maintain


       Issue 3: Poor cycle signage for NCN1


       Short term:


provide   sign   for   NCN1   at   right   turn  from   A832   eastbound   to   North   Kessock/ Inverness


         cut back vegetation obscuring cycle signage


         provide nearside sign on A832 for westbound cyclists turning right onto shared

           use footway for NCN1


1 formal NMU count of movements



 8.1.2 A9 north side of Tore roundabout inc NCN1 crossing location


        Issue 1: Pedestrians crossing at the roundabout splitter


        Short term:


            undertake pedestrian/ cycle usage survey to ascertain current use


            remove accumulations of silt and gravel at dropped kerbs and maintain


            provide flush (6mm max) upstands at the dropped kerbs


  cut   back   foliage   within  the   central   island  of   the   roundabout  to   improve   inter- visibility between circulating traffic and pedestrians looking left and stepping from the central reserve into the northbound carriageway


          Issue 2: Comfort of cyclists accessing NCN1 on west side of crossing


          Short term:


            widen the gap in the boundary fence on the access to Torwood Way


  improve   the   left   turn   radius   into   the   gap   from   the   south west  side   footway   to enable cyclists to keep riding as they turn into Torwood Way from the south


8.1.3   NCN1 west of Tore roundabout inc Torwood Way and link to A835


        Issue 1: Torwood Way personal security for pedestrians


        Short term:


                consider the provision of local lighting in Torwood Way


        Issue 2: Cyclists using NCN1 at A835/ Primary School junction


        Short term:


      cut back vegetation at bellmouth to improve inter-visibility between NCN1 users and traffic and maintain


        Medium term:


      check swept paths of vehicles likely to use this junction to determine             whether a splitter can be provided in the bellmouth. This would assist NMUs as they cross the junction on NCN1.( Alternatively corner radii could be adjusted to  narrow the junction.)



8.1.4 Additional measures on the northern NCN1 route


        Short term:


               replace any faded signs/ markings for NCN1


        Medium term:


  provide   greater   route   continuity   and   coherence   by   providing   additional   signs and   markings   appropriate   to  NMUs   throughout  the   route.   These   should   give greater confidence to users, in addition to demonstrating the route to motorists.


  consideration should be given to providing a highlighted route from the North Kessock   Road   to   the   A835   shared   use   section   west   of   Tore,   by   adopting   a local   route   marking   /   surface   colour/   symbol   for   cyclists   and   highlighting   the crossing at the splitter in coloured surfacing


8.2     Southern NMU route inc A9 crossing and local service roads


        Issue 1: Pedestrians using staggered crossing on A9


        Short term:


  improve        conspicuity     of  the   crossing     location    by   reviewing     positions    of advance signing, for example placing the southbound clearway signs south of the crossing location


  add  sign  plates   to   the   existing  “pedestrians  in  road”  signs with   a   message more specific to the hazard and location


  extend   the   lighting for   the   roundabout to   include   the   crossing   location,   with appropriate lighting of similar standard to that on the roundabout


  consider  the  use  of “smart”  signs  whereby  pedestrian  presence  is  detected  and a warning to drivers is shown


  remove   the   road   studs   from   the   current   (west   side)   carriageway   that   are located within the crossing area and replace them away from the crossing


  add  “look  left/  look  right”  legends  as  appropriate  on  the  west  side,  at   the nearside and central reserve drop kerbs


  increase  the  size  of  the  “look  left”  sign  in  the  central  reserve  for  users  crossing westbound from the central reserve


  highlight   the   anchorage   point   for   the   wire   rope   safety   fence   so   that   it   is conspicuous at night


  continue to undertake pedestrian road safety education exercises targeted at pupils in Fortrose Academy currently crossing the road between bus stops,

            aimed at highlighting how to cross the road as safely as possible



         Issue 2: Comfort of cyclists using the southern crossing


         Short term:


  widen gaps in the fences linking the service roads to the footways adjacent to the A9 crossing (east and west sides)


8.3    Other aspects for NMUs in Tore


       Issue 1: Cyclists using A9 main carriageway south and north of Tore


       Short term:


  ensure NCN1 is well signed at both the Inverness northbound and Dingwall southbound approaches to the Tore area


  consideration       should    be  given   to  the  travel   needs    of long   distance   and commuter cyclists and adding  major destinations to NCN1 signage to avoid confusion for those travelling such distances


Issue     2:  Northbound  cyclists   leaving  A9  south    of   Tore   roundabout and remaining on footway


       Short term:


  provide a short section of shared use at footway north of the bus stop, to join the section around the radius into the A832. This will complete the shared use section on the west side of the roundabout


                Footway north of the bus stop on A9 leading to shared

                use section around radius onto A832


       Issue     3:  Issues for   pedestrians in   the  vicinity  of  Tore  Primary School/

         Community Hall


       Short term:


  replace the worn “footprint” markings leading from the Community Hall to the  Primary School. Ensure all dropped kerbs are flush (max 6mm upstand)


  cut back vegetation to improve inter-visibility at the uncontrolled crossing point from the Community Hall and maintain


  continue   with  current   road   safety  education  activity   at  Tore  Primary   School, and add to this if necessary


        Issues 4: Right turn from A835 into primary school road


        Medium term:


  although this is not a NMU issue per se, it is possible that children being taken to   school   by   car   could   be   at   risk   from   injury   in   shunt   type   collisions   as   the vehicle     turns   right.  Whilst    there    are   no   recent    collisions   recorded at  this location, a conflict study could be undertaken, with a view to determining the potential   for  shunt     collisions    occurring.    Depending  on   the outcome of  this study, further measures could be considered










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